2000:

Alaska

Domestic Partnership There are no municipalities offering

domestic partner benefits in Alaska.

Marriage Law 1998: Anti-Marriage Constitutional Amendment

Ratified.

Senate Joint Resolution 42: Having already passed an

anti-marriage bill in 1996, voters nevertheless ratified an

amendment incorporating anti-gay, anti-marriage

discrimination directly into the state constitution. This latest

anti-marriage measure was a response to a Feb. 27, 1998

preliminary ruling by a state court judge, who in Brause v.

Alaska found:

(1) that marriage is a fundamental right,

(2) that denial of civil marriage licenses to same-sex couples

is discrimination based on sex, and

(3) therefore the government must show a compelling reason

for withholding a civil marriage license from a gay couple. The

constitutional amendment bans marriage for same-sex couples

and purports to invalidate such lawful marriages validly

performed in other states.

1996: Anti-Marriage Bill Adopted

House Bill 227:Introduced by Rep. Norman Rokeberg (R) on

March 3, 1995. The bill would restrict marriage to "between a

man and woman" Passed the House February 28, 1996.

Senate Bill 30:Introduced by Rep. Lyda Green (R) March 14,

1996. Restricts marriage to opposite-sex couples, and

provides that a same-sex couple's marriage lawfully

contracted elsewhere will be "void in this state, and

contractual rights granted by virtue of the marriage, including

its termination, are unenforceable in this state." Passed the

Health, Education & Social Services Committee on March 20.

Passed the Senate and House, allowed by Governor Tony

Knowles (D) to become law without signature.

1995: Anti-Marriage Bill Blocked!

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Alabama

Domestic Partnership There are no municipalities offering

domestic partner benefits in Alabama.

Marriage Law 1998: Anti-Marriage Bill Adopted.

Senate Bill 171: Anti-marriage bill introduced for third

consecutive year.

House Bill 152: Similar anti-marriage measure restricting

marriage to different-sex couples only, and declaring void the

lawful marriages of same-sex couples. Passed the House and

Senate with no discussion, signed by Gov. Fob James (R).

1997: Anti-Marriage Bill Blocked!

Senate Bill 282: Senator Roger Bedford (D) intoduced

anti-marriage bill that, like the one that failed in 1996, bans

marriage licenses for same-sex couples, denies recognition to

lawful marriages from other states, and punishes by at least

$1000 any person who performs or "solemnizes" a same-sex

couple's wedding. After first-ever testimony by openly gay

people before legislature, bill fails to advance. Barring special

session, it and other such legislation is dead for the year.

Senate Bill 1: Likewise bars same-sex couples from marrying

and denies legal recognition to their lawful marriages.

House Bill 482: Similar to Senate Bill 1. Passed committee.

1996: Anti-Marriage Bill Blocked!

House Bill 142: Declares that "marriage between persons of

the same sex shall not be deemed legitimate and shall be

declared void." Reported from Judiciary Committee Feb. 13.

Placed on special calendar but failed to advance.

Senate Bill 396: Introduced by Senator Armistead (R).

Prohibits marriages between persons of the same sex in

Alabama, prohibits legal recognition of lawful marriages

celebrated elsewhere, and fines officials who celebrate a

marriage for a same-sex couple $1000. Referred to Judiciary.

Executive Order: Despite decision of legislature not to enact

discriminatory legislation, Governor Fob James issues an

executive order in August, purporting to declare by fiat that

gay people may not get married in Alabama, and that the

state will not recognize any lawful marriages of same-sex

couples.

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Arkansas

Domestic Partnership There are no municipalities offering

domestic partner benefits in Arkansas.

Marriage Law 1997: Anti-Marriage Bill Adopted.

Senate Bill 5: Anti-marriage bills passed Senate (1/27) and

House (1/22). Signed by Governor Huckabee (R) on February

13.

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Arizona

Domestic Partnership Municipalities offering domestic

partner benefits to employees:

Tucson (Pima County): April 28, 1997. Same-sex Couples

Only.

Pima County: March 1998. LaWall v. Pima County:

Lambda successfully represented county employees seeking

to intervene against a suit filed by the county attorney

challenging the provision of health insurance to the domestic

partners of county employees.

Marriage Law 1996: Anti-Marriage Bill Adopted.

House Bill 106: Introduced by Rep. Jeff Groscost (R). Would

specify that marriage between people of the same sex is

"illegal," and would refuse to recognize lawful marriages

performed in other states. Initially blocked by substitution of

general "family values" language in place of anti-marriage

provision, but revived through manipulation of the rules and

passed through House. Passed by Senate as Senate Bill 1038.

Signed by Governor Symington (R) on May 5, 1996.

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California

Domestic Partnership California offers a Domestic Partner

Registry

Registry (October 2, 1999)

Municipalities offering domestic partnership benefits to

employees:

Alameda County

Bay Area Air Quality Management District

Bay Area Rapid Transit (BART)

Berkeley (Alameda): April 1985

Registry: October 1991

Berkeley Unified School District: 1986

Davis* (Yolo)

*Registry Only

Laguna Beach (Orange): June 1990

Registry: June 1990

Long Beach* (Los Angeles)

*Registry Only: October 1991

Los Angeles (Los Angeles): October 1988

Registry

Los Angeles County: December 19, 1995

Registry: March 23, 1999

Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority

Los Angeles Unified School District

Marin County- Registry

Oakland (Alameda): June 1996

Registry: June 1996

Palo Alto (Santa Clara): 1997.

Registry: December 1995

Sacramento (Sacramento): 1995

Registry: October 1992

Sacramento Para Transit

San Diego (San Diego): June 1994. [Employees must purchase

the health insurance themselves, but this is a valuable option

because it offers better coverage at less expense.]

San Francisco (San Francisco): July 1991. In Litigation. Air

Transport Association v. San Francisco: Lambda, with the

ACLU and the National Center for Lesbian Rights, is helping

fight the airline industry's challenge to San Francisco's

ordinance requiring contractors to provide their employees

with domestic partner benefits like those accorded spouses.

This ordinance has resulted, for the first time, in companies

offering domestic partner benefits in industries such as the oil

business and professional sports.

Registry: November 1990

San Francisco Chamber of Commerce

San Francisco County: July 1991

San Jose School District

San Mateo County: 1992

Santa Barbara (Santa Barbara): 1998 - Registry

[Santa Clara County]:1996. REPEALED. Law never took effect

and was repealed February 24, 1998 under threat of divisive

ballot initiative challenge.

Santa Cruz (Santa Cruz): May 1986

Santa Cruz County: May 1986

Santa Cruz Metro Transit System: 1985

West Hollywood (Los Angeles): February 1985

Registry: February 1985

Marriage Law Ballot Initiative - March 2000 -- Adopted

Having failed five times in the past three years to persuade

the legislature to adopt a discriminatory anti-marriage bill,

Republican state senator Pete Knight, with the assistance of

Focus on the Family, Traditional Values Coalition, and other

right-wing groups placed on the March 2000 ballot an

anti-gay, anti-marriage measure officially entitled the "Limit

On Marriage Initiative," and generally known as the Knight

Initiative. It passed on March 7, and selectively amended

California law to require the state to discriminate against gay

people's lawful marriages while nevertheless recognizing all

other out-of-state marriages. Younger voters overwhelmingly

rejected the Knight Initiative, and, far from ending the

ongoing discussion around gay people and marriage, as the

right-wing hoped, public debate, visibility, and support for our

freedom to marry continue to grow -- with a concomitant

sense ofi nevitability.

1999: Ballot Initiative - March 2000!

Having failed five times in the past three years to persuade

the legislature to adopt a discriminatory anti-marriage bill,

Republican state senator Pete Knight, with the assistance of

Focus on the Family, Traditional Values Coalition, and other

right-wing groups has placed on the March 2000 ballot an

anti-marriage initiative. The measure would selectively amend

California law to require the state to discriminate against gay

people's lawful marriages, while nevertheless recognizing all

other out-of-state marriages Resources Concerning

California's Anti-Marriage Measure.

1997: Anti-Marriage Bill Blocked!

Assembly Bill 800: Introduced by Assemblymember Margett

(R). Defeated in Judiciary Committee.

Senate Bill 911: Introduced by Senator Pete Knight (R),

leading proponent of the three anti-marriage bills Californians

were forced to grapple with in 1996. Defeated in committee.

1996: Anti-Marriage Bill Blocked!

Assembly Bill 1982: Introduced by Assembly Member Pete

Knight (R) on September 15, 1995. The bill was amended on

January 12, 1996 and stipulates that only a man and a woman

may be allowed to obtain a license and authorization for

marriage in the state of California. The bill further provides

that the state of California will not recognize same-sex

couples' marriages even if lawfully performed in other states.

Passed the Assembly on a largely partisan vote. Amended in

the Senate Judiciary Committee on July 9 to include "domestic

partnership provision," passed in amended form through

Appropriations Committee. Full Senate rejects attempt to strip

amendments on 20-21 vote (with Lt. Gov. casting vote). Bill

dies.

Assembly Bill 3227: Introduced by Assembly Member Pete

Knight (R) on February 23, 1996. Spells out more explicitly the

discriminatory bases of non-recognition of same-sex couples'

lawful marriages. Died in Assembly in June.

Senate Bill 2075: Following the Senate Judiciary Committee's

amendment of AB1982, Rep. Haynes gutted this bill, which

orginally related to fines and forfeitures, to transform it into

the third anti-marriage bill. Passed by Assembly, goes to

Senate, where It dies.

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Colorado

Domestic Partnership Municipalities offering domestic

partner benefits to employees:

Boulder (Boulder): 1996.

Registry

Denver (Denver): September 1996

Marriage Law Adopted

A right-wing group has filed a measure with the state to begin

collecting signatures for an anti-marriage ballot initiative,

much like the discriminatory anti-gay measure struck down by

the U.S. Supreme Court in 1996. The legislature rejected a

similar measure last year.

SB45: Yet again, Senator Marilyn Musgrave (R) introduced her

anti-marriage bill, rejected by the legislature last year (and

vetoed twice previously by the governor before that). Passed

the Senate. Meanwhile a similar measure has passed in the

House, to be signed by the Gov. Bill Owens (R).

1999: Anti-Marriage Bill Blocked!

Senate Bill 159: For the fourth consecutive year, Senator

Marilyn Musgrave (R) has introduced an anti-marriage bill. In

two previous years, these discriminatory measures were

vetoed by former Governor Romer, and in one year, it didn't

advance. Passed Judiciary Committee, 5-3, at the same as

another committee rejected SB 78, a bill that would have

provided even small recognition of same-sex couples for

purposes of inheritance. Passed by the Senate on Feb. 17,

but rejected in the House Judiciary Committee and dead for

this year.

1998: Anti-Marriage Bill Blocked!

House Bill 1248: For the third consecutive year, Rep. Marily

Musgrave (R) has introduced an anti-marriage bill aimed at

discriminating against same-sex couples' marriages whether

celebrated in Colorado or out of state. The bill failed to

advance and was withdrawn.

1997: Anti-Marriage Bill Blocked!

House Bill 1198: Introduced by Rep. Marilyn Musgrave (R),

who proposed the same bill the year before. Declares lawful

marriages between people of the same sex "absolutely void."

Passed House. Amended in Senate Judiciary Committee to

require non-recognition of same-sex couples' lawful marriages,

while deleting declaration that such marriages were against

the state's public policy. Passed Senate and House with

amendments. On June 5, Governor Roy Romer (D) vetoed the

anti-marriage bill, just as he did the year before.

1996: Anti-Marriage Bill Blocked!

House Bill 1291: Introduced by Rep. Musgrave (R) on January

31, 1996. Passed the House by one vote. Voted out by the

Senate March 11. Vetoed as "divisive" and mean-spirited by

Governor Roy Romer (D) on March 25.

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Connecticut

Domestic Partnership Municipalities offering domestic

partner benefits to employees:

Hartford (Hartford): 1993.

Registry: June 1993. Symbolic only, provides no legal or

financial benefits.

Marriage Law 1999: Anti-Marriage Bill Blocked!

In early June, right-wing legislators at the last minute

proposed an anti-marriage amendment to a pending bill that

would have provided for second-parent adoptions to offer

protections to the children raised by gay and other parents.

With no debate, the full House passed the measure as

amended, thus sending to the Senate an undebated,

unexamined bill that would discriminate in marriage and attack

lawful out-of-state marriages. The amendment was intended,

in part, to scuttle the underlying family-protection bill, and

the Senate thus failed to proceed on the bill, killing the

anti-marriage amendment as well.

1997: Anti-Marriage Bill Blocked!

Senate Bill 535: Introduced by Senator Neilson. Would restict

marriage to only different-sex couples. Referred to Judiciary

Committee. Failed to advance.

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Washington D.C.

Domestic Partnership The District of Columbia offers

domestic partnership benefits to employees.

However, the plan has not yet been implemented as each

year since the D.C. Council passed the domestic partnership

law (1992), Congress has attached amendments to the city's

budget laws barring the city from using federal and D.C. funds

for its implementation. Activists have devised a method to

register, involving sending paperwork to the city government

via registered mail and using the receipt as proof of

registration.

Registry: April 1992

Marriage Law There has been no marriage legislation

introduced in the District of Columbia.

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Delaware

Domestic Partnership There are no municipalities offering

domestic partner benefits in Delaware.

Marriage Law 1996: Anti-Marriage Bill Adopted.

House Bill 503: Introduced on April 4 by Rep. Gerald

Buckworth (R). Passed House and Senate, signed into law by

Gov. Thomas Carper.

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Florida

Domestic Partnership Municipalities offering domestic

partner benefits to employees:

Broward County: January 1, 2000

Miami Beach (Dade): July 1998. Non-health Benefits.

Key West (Monroe): February 12, 1998

Monroe County: February 11, 1998

West Palm Beach (Palm Beach): February 1992

Marriage Law 1997: Anti-Marriage Bill Adopted.

House Bill 147: Introduced by Rep. Johnny Byrd. Would

restrict marriage to different-sex couples only, and deny

recognition to lawful marriages of same-sex couples under all

circumstances. Passed in stacked Governmental Operations

Committee, and then passed the full House on March 25. On

May 29, Gov. Lawton Chiles chose not to veto the bill,

allowing it to become law without his signature.

Senate Bill 272: Introduced by Sen. John Grant (R). Passed

Judiciary Committee March 12; passed Senate.

1996: Anti-Marriage Bill Blocked!

House Bill 2369: Bill introduced by Rep. Buddy Johnson (R).

Assigned to House Judiciary Committee on March 6. Bill

withdrawn on March 12. Legislature adjourned without action

on bill.

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Georgia

Domestic Partnership Municipalities offering domestic

partner benefits to employees:

Atlanta (Fulton): August 1996. Atlanta passed a second

benefits ordinance in August 1996, to which a challenge was

filed by an Atlanta resident. In City of Atlanta v. Morgan,

Lambda and a host of Georgia civil rights groups successfully

helped defend the ordinance against local religious extremists.

Atlanta's first benefits ordinance was passed in August 1993.

It was subsequently invalidated when the Georgia Supreme

Court ruled in March 1995 that the City of Atlanta exceeded

its authority in extending employee benefits to domestic

partners of state employees. Atlanta et al. v. McKinney et al.,

454 S.E.2d 517 (Ga. 1995).

Registry: June 1993. Atlanta's right to establish a domestic

partnership registry was upheld by the Georgia Supreme Court

in March 1995. Atlanta et al. v. McKinney et al., 454 S.E.2d

517 (Ga. 1995).

Marriage Law 1996: Anti-Marriage Bill Adopted.

House Bill 1580: Introduced by Rep. Crews (R). Would insert

an explicit limitation of marriage as only "between a man and

a woman." Passed the House. On February 27, passed by

Senate Special Judiciary Committee, 4-2. Senate Bill 681:

Introduced by Senators Gochenour, Perdue, and Edge (R).

Declares it the "public policy of this state to recognize the

union only of man and woman. No same-sex marriage shall be

recognized as entitled to the benefits of marriage." Further

prohibits marriages between persons of the same sex, declare

out-of-state marriages "null and void", and says that "any

contractual rights granted by virtue of such license, including

its termination [!], shall be unenforceable in the courts of this

state." Senate Judiciary committee approved, 4-2. Passed

Senate. Signed into law by Governor Zell Miller (D).

Return to top

Hawaii

Domestic Partnership The State of Hawai'i offers domestic

partnership benefits to employees.

Reciprocal Beneficiaries Law: July 1, 1997.

Marriage Law 1999: Anti-Marriage Bill Blocked!

Senate Bill 321: Introduced by Senator Les Ihara, this seems

to be a place-holder for a possible restriction on marriage

following the constitutional amendment. Failed to advance

before the internal legislative deadlines. House Bill 775:

Introduced by Judiciary Committee chair Paul Oshiro, this bill

would deny same-sex couples the freedom to marry that the

equal protection guarantees of the Hawaii constitution

seemed to mandate. Failed to advance before the internal

legislative deadlines.

House Bill 717: Introduced by Rep. Kenny Goodenow, this bill

would remove the government from the "marriage business,"

allowing different-sex and same-sex couples to contract

"registered partnerships" under law, while reserving "marriage"

for religious or personal use. Failed to advance before the

internal legislative deadlines.

1998: Constitutional Amendment Ratified.

House Bill 117: On November 3, 1998, the voters ratified a

constitutional amendment that permits (although it does not

require) the legislature to restrict marriage to opposite-sex

couples. The legislature may act in 1999. In sending the

amendment proposal, the legislature coupled it with House Bill

118, legislation according same-sex couples (and other

"reciprocal beneficiaries") the broadest package of rights and

benefits ever accorded gay families in the U.S. That law took

effect in July 1997. It is unclear what impact, if any, all of

this will have on Baehr v. Anderson (formerly Baehr v. Miike,

the landmark freedom to marry case, now pending before the

Hawaii Supreme Court.

1997: Anti-Marriage Bill Pending.

House Bill 117: On April 29, both houses of the legislature

voted for language of a proposed constitutional amendment

which, if approved by the voters would permit (although not

require) the legislature to restrict marriage to opposite-sex

couples. The proposed amendment now will go to the voters

in November 1998. Even if approved, it would be 1999 before

a discriminatory restriction on marriage could become law.

The amendment proposal was coupled with House Bill 118,

legislation according same-sex couples (and other "reciprocal

beneficiaries") the broadest package of rights and benefits

ever accorded gay families in the U.S. That law took effect in

July 1997. It is unclear what, if any, impact all of this will

have on Baehr v. Miike, the landmark freedom to marry case,

now pending before the Hawai'i Supreme Court.

1996: Anti-Marriage Bill Blocked!

House Bill 2366: On March 1, House Speaker Joe Souki (D)

prompts suspension of rules to consider constitutional

amendment that would provide that "Marriage shall be defined

in the State of Hawaii as the legal association reserved

exclusively for the lawful union of a man and a woman."

Measure passed House; blocked in Senate Judiciary

Committee until April 26, when withdrawn and defeated on

floor of Senate, 15 - 10. The legislature adjourned without

advancing legislation against equal marriage rights for gay

people.

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Iowa

Domestic Partnership Municipalities Offering Domestic

Partnership Benefits to Employees:

Iowa City (Johnson): August 1994. HUD assistance offered as

of July 1, 1998 Registry: November 1994

Marriage Law 1998: Anti-Marriage Bill Adopted.

House Resolution 382:For the third consecutive year, House

Republicans sponsored an anti-marriage bill that would

discriminate against the lawful marriages of same-sex couples.

Approved by the House in March, and by the Senate on

March 26, with an amendment creating a task force on

"domestic partnership." Signed by Gov. Terry Branstad (R).

Senate Bill 2187: Senate 2187 Companion bill introduced by

Judiciary Committee chair Andy McKean(R) and Larry

McKibben(R).

1997: Anti-Marriage Bill Blocked!

Senate Study Bill 114: Introduced by Gov. Terry Branstad (R).

Failed to proceed.

House Study Bill 37: Introduced by Governor. Same. Passed

by Judiciary Committee, but failed to proceed prior to

deadline.

1996: Anti-Marriage Bill Blocked!

House Bill 2183: Introduced February 9, 1996 by Reps. Hurley

and Grubbs (R). States that "[o]nly a marriage between a

male and a female" is valid. Passed House Feb. 20 without

public hearings. Failed in Senate Judiciary Committee March

21.

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Idaho

Domestic Partnership There are no municipalities offering

domestic partner benefits in Idaho.

Marriage Law 1996: Anti-Marriage Bill Adopted.

House Bill 658: Introduced by several House Members on

January 12, 1996. Amends Section 32-209 of the Idaho Code

to read, "All Marriages contracted without this state, which

would be valid by the laws of the state or country in which

the same were contracted, are valid in this state, unless they

violate the public policy of this state. Marriages that violate

the public policy of this state include, but are not limited to,

same-sex marriages, and marriages entered into under the

laws of another state or country with the intent to evade the

prohibitions of marriage laws of this state." Passed the House

and Senate; signed into law by Governor Phil Batt (R).

Return to top

Illinois

Domestic Partnership Municipalities offering domestic

partner benefits to employees:

Chicago (Cook): March 1997. In Litigation. Crawford v. City of

Chicago: Lambda helped Chicago fight off an attempt to block

a new city ordinance allowing health and other employment

benefits for the domestic partners of municipal workers.

Anti-gay ministers continue to challenge the plan now in

effect. Same-sex Couples Only.

Cook County

Oak Park (Cook): April 1994

Registry: September 2, 1997. On March 17, 1998 symbolic

vote reaffirms registry after ballot initiative challenge.

Same-sex Couples Only.

Marriage Law 1996: Anti-Marriage Bill Adopted.

Senate Bill 1773: Introduced by Sen. Peter Fitzgerald (R) on

February 9, 1996. Prohibits marriages "between two

individuals of the same sex" and declares such lawful

marriages to be "against public policy." Passed by Senate

Judiciary Committee March 6, 1996. Passed Senate on March

29, 1996, passed the House on April 25, vetoed by Governor

Edgar (R) on May 24, who simultaneously signed Senate Bill

1140, an identical measure containing an immediate effective

date.

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Indiana

Domestic Partnership Municipalities offering domestic

partner benefits to employees:

Bloomington (Monroe): March 1997

Marriage Law 1997: Anti-Marriage Bill Adopted.

House Bill 1019: Introduced by Rep. Woody Burton (R).

Blocked in Families, Children & Human Affairs Committee. No

further action. . Similar language has now been proposed by

Rep. Burton as an amendment to an unrelated bill on welfare.

The amendment adds a non-recognition provision to the

current restriction on marriage to different-sex couples. After

further manipulations of the rules, Rep. Burton succeeded in

getting similar language voted out in another gutted bill. Gov.

Frank O'Bannon signed the measure into law on May 13.

Senate Bill 211: Anti-marriage bill passed by Judiciary

Committee. Failed to proceed.

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Kansas

Domestic Partnership There are no municipalities offering

domestic partner benefits in Kansas.

Marriage Law 1996: Anti-Marriage Bill Adopted.

House Amendment to Senate Bill 515: Amends marriage

statute to say that marriage is a "civil contract between two

parties who are of opposite sex. All other marriages are

declared to be contrary to the public policy of this state and

void." Passed House March 21 without hearings. After

procedural manuevering by sponsors to circumvent a

House-Senate conference committee, the bill passed in the

Senate without hearings. Signed by Governor Graves (R).

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Kentucky

Domestic Partnership There are no municipalities offering

domestic partner benefits in Kansas.

Marriage Law 1998: Anti-Marriage Bill Adopted.

House Bill 11: Prefiled bill would prohibit same-sex couples

from marrying in Kentucky and discriminate against lawful

marriages from out of state.

House Bill 13:Sponsored by Sheldon Baugh (R), this is a similar

bill with the same discriminatory restrictions and exclusions as

well as language about "public policy." House Judiciary

Committee amended the bill to include HB11 and then

approved it, as did the full House on March 11. Passed by the

Senate on March 26 and signed into law by Gov. Paul Patton

(D).

1997: No Regular Session.

Anti-marriage bills rejected in 1996 again "pre-filed," although

unless an irregular special session of the legislature is called,

there will be no action until 1998.

1996: Anti-Marriage Bill Blocked!

House Bill 500: Proposed by Rep. Sheldon Baugh (R), to

provide that "a marriage between members of the same sex

which occurs in another jurisdiction shall be void in Kentucky,"

as shall such marriages in Kentucky. Similar language is also

pending in a second House measure introduced by Rep. Kathy

Hogancamp (R) (Floor Amendment 1 to H.B. 219). Legislature

adjourned without further action, thus killing the bill.

House Bill 882: Assigned to Judiciary Committee. No further

details.

Senate Bill 339: Assigned to Senate Judiciary Committee. No

further details.

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Louisiana

Domestic Partnership Municipalities Offering Domestic

Partnership Benefits to Employees:

New Orleans (Orleans): Same-sex Only

Registry: July 16, 1993

Marriage Law 1999: Anti-Marriage Bill Adopted.

Senate Bill 1450: Anti-marriage measure is introduced,

sponsored by Rep. Fontenot. Passed House and Senate with

no debate, signed into law by governor.

1997: Anti-Marriage Bill Blocked!

Senate Bill 37: Introduced by Sen. Phil Short (R) to amend

the state constitution so as to outlaw marriage between

persons of the same-sex. Failed twice to get the requisite

two-thirds vote for passage, and ultimately withdrawn on

June 20.

1996: Anti-Marriage Bill Blocked!

Senate Resolution 27: Attempting to circumvent the rule

limiting the 1996 legislative session to fiscal issues only, a

resolution was proposed to support the federal anti-marriage

bill (DOMA). The bill passed the Senate on May 29, passed

the House in amended form on June 11, and then failed in the

Senate as amended.

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Massachusetts

Domestic Partnership Massachusetts offers Domestic

Partnership Benefits to Employees. 1992.

Registry (September 1992) Governor's Executive Order allows

state workers to register for purposes of bereavement leave

and visitation rights in state prisons and hospitals.

Municipalities offering domestic partnership benefits to

employees:

Boston (Suffolk): August 4, 1998. Executive Order by Mayor

Thomas Menino.

Registry: December 1993

Brewster (Barnstable)

Brookline (Norfolk): 1993. Non-health Benefits

Registry: June 1993

Cambridge (Middlesex): September 1992

Registry: September 1992

Nantucket (Nantucket)

Registry

[Northampton (Hampshire)]: May 1995. REPEALED. This

measure, approved by the City Council in May 1995, was then

repealed by voter referendum in November of 1995.

[Registry]: REPEALED.

Provincetown (Barnstable): 1993.

Registry: 1993. Not limited to Provincetown residents.

Springfield (Hampden): April 1997

Marriage Law 2000:

House Bill 472: Sponsored by Rep. Rogers in 1999 and carried

over. Bill was referred to "study," although it could be

reactivated this year.

1999: Anti-Marriage Bill Pending.

House Bill 472: Sponsored by Rep. Rogers. Judiciary

Committee hearing on May 18. Bill referred to "study,"

although it could be reactivated.

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Maryland

Domestic Partnership Municipalities offering domestic

partnership benefits to employees:

Baltimore (Baltimore): January 1995. Same-sex Couples Only.

Takoma Park (Montgomery): November 1988

Marriage Law 2000:

HB 919: A bill to eliminate sex discrimination in marriage is

introduced, allowing "two consenting adults" to marry rather

than restricting the freedom to marry to different-sex

couples.

1999: Anti-Marriage Bill Blocked!

House Bill 1128: Once again, a measure is introduced to

discriminate against the prospective lawful marriages of

same-sex couples. Rejected in committee.

1998: Anti-Marriage Bill Blocked!

Senate Bill 565: For the third consecutive year, legislators are

pushing an anti-marriage bill, this time in the Senate with a

measure introduced by Senators Colbert (R) and Haines (R).

The Senate Judicial Proceedings Committee approved the bill

on March 5, as did the full Senate on March 26. Defeated in

House Judiciary Committee.

Pro-Marriage Bill Defeated.

House Bill 1259: This bill, introduced by Delegate Sharon

Grosfeld (D), would remove discriminatory language in the

family law code prohibiting same-sex couples from marrying.

Defeated in House Judiciary Committee March 25.

1997: Anti-Marriage Bill Defeated!

House Bill 398: Bill rejected last year again introduced by

Emmett Burns on January 23. Would declare same-sex

couples' lawful marriages "repugnant," and refuse them

recognition. Hearing held on March 12 in House Judiciary

Committee, which defeated the bill on March 17.

1996: Anti-Marriage Bill Defeated!

House Bill 1268: Introduced on February 15 by Delegate Emmit

Burns to ban recognition of lawful out-of-state marriages by

same-sex couples who move into or return to Maryland.

Rejected by House of Delegates Judiciary Committee 14-8.

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Maine

Domestic Partnership Municipalities Offering Domestic

Partnership Benefits to Employees:

Portland (Cumberland)

Marriage Law 1997: Anti-Marriage Bill Adopted.

In response to anti-gay right-wing group's petitions to force

an anti-gay anti-marriage initiative onto the November 1997

ballot, the legislature adopted the discriminatory legislation.

Gov. King refused to sign the bill, blasting it as

unconstitutional and wrong, but allowing it to become law for

the time being rather than permit a referendum.

1996: Anti-Marriage Bill Defeated!

Bill would have prohibited recognition of same-sex couples'

lawful marriages, but was withdrawn on January 24, 1996. An

anti-marriage non-binding resolution was also rejected.

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Michigan

Domestic Partnership Municipalities offering domestic

partnership benefits to employees:

Ann Arbor (Washtenaw): August 1992

Registry: November 1991

Detroit (Wayne)

East Lansing (Ingham): June 1993

Registry: March 1991

Wayne County

Marriage Law 1996: Anti-Marriage Bill Adopted.

House Bill 5661: Introduced by Rep. Deborah Whyman (R).

Would prohibit same-sex couples from marrying. Passed by

House.

House Bill 5662: Introduced by Rep. Whyman (R). Would

declare null and void any lawful marriage of same-sex couple

from another state. Passed by House.

Senate Bill 937: Introduced by Sen. William Van Regenmorter.

Would prohibit same-sex couples from marrying. Passed by

Senate.

Senate Bill 938: Introduced by Sen. Van Regenmorter. Would

declare null and void any lawful marriage of same-sex couples

from another state. Passed by Senate. Signed on June 26 by

Governor John Engler (R).

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Minnesota

Domestic Partnership Municipalities offering domestic

partnership benefits to employees:

[Hennepin County]: January 1991. REPEALED.

[Minneapolis (Hennepin)]: August 1993. INVALIDATED by

court order, Lilly v. City of Minneapolis 1994 WL 315620

(Minn. Dist. Ct.) The Minneapolis Supreme Court refused to

review the state court of appeals' decision. Lilly v. City of

Minneapolis, 527 N.W.2d 107, rev. denied, March 31, 1995.

[Registry]: January 1991. INVALIDATED by Lilly.

Minneapolis Public Library

Minneapolis School District

St. Paul

Marriage Law 1997: Anti-Marriage Bill Adopted.

Senate Bill 11: Bill introduced prohibiting same-sex couples

from marrying, refusing to recognize lawful marriages from

other states, and denying same-sex couples "the benefits of

marriage." Referred to Judiciary Committee.

House Bill 41: Referred to Judiciary Committee. Adopted by

Committee as amendment to unrelated health servicest bill as

way of getting around the appropriate subcommittee. Passed

through both houses, and signed into law by Gov. Arne

Carlson (R) on June 2.

1996: Anti-Marriage Bill Defeated!

House Bill: Anti-marriage amendment introduced, but blocked

as non-germane. No further information at this time.

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Missouri

Domestic Partnership There are no municipalities offering

domestic partner benefits in Missouri:

St. Louis* (St. Louis)

*Registry Only: March 10, 1997. Allows for visitation at city

medical facilities and jails.

Marriage Law 2000:

House Bill 1187: Reps. Gratz and Vogel have pre-filed an

anti-marriage bill to restrict marriage to different-sex couples

and discriminate against lawful out-of-state married couples.

A similar measure was declared procedurally unconstitutional

by the state supreme court. Meanwhile, two other

anti-marriage measures, HB 1812 and 1819, have also been

introduced and are pending in the Children, Youth, and

Families Committee. SB744: Sen. David Klarich (R) again has

introduced an anti-marriage bill declaring that same-sex

couples’ marriages are "invalid and will not be recognized,

even if valid where contracted." Passed the committee on

Feb. 8.

1999: Anti-Marriage Bill Blocked!

Senate Bill 266: Sponsored by Sen. Klarich, this renewed

anti-marriage effort follows the previous attack, in which an

anti-marriage restriction was introduced as part of an omnibus

bill passed by the legislature and declared unconstitutional by

the state high court. Passed the Senate. Passed the House

Judiciary Committee on April 15, but failed to advance prior to

close of session.

House Bill 821: Similar.

1998: State Supreme Court Declares Anti-Marriage Bill

Unconstitutional.

1996: Anti-Marriage Bill Adopted.

Senate Bill 895: Introduced by Sen. Kinder on February 6,

1996. Would declare same-sex couples' marriages

presumptively void. Passed by Senate on May 8. Signed by

Gov. Mel Carnahan (D) as Senate Bill 587. House Bill 1458:

Sponsored by Rep. James Froelker. Purports to permit the

"solemnization of same-sex relationships by religious

organizations [while denying them] the benefits, burdens, or

obligations of marriage under the laws of Missouri." Passed by

House.

House Bill 1454: Sponsored by Reps. Glenn Hall and Connie

Cierpiot; adds "persons of the same sex" to list of those

prohibited from marrying. Same Committee.

House Bill 165: Introduced on April 22, 1996. Adds "persons of

the same sex" to list of marriages that are "presumptively

void," as well as language saying that "Missouri is committed

to fostering the institution of marriage between a man and a

woman. To this end, the state of Missouri shall not recognize

any marriage other than between a man and a woman." Same

Committee.

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Missippi

Domestic Partnership There are no municipalities offering

domestic partner benefits in Mississippi.

Marriage Law 1999: Anti-Marriage Amendment Blocked!

SCR 510: In addition to the anti-marriage law passed in 1997,

and the governor's anti-marriage executive order before that,

Senator Nunelee proposed an anti-marriage constitutional

amendment. If passed, the proposed amendment would have

gone to the voters for ratification in November 1999. Blocked

in Judiciary Committee on Feb. 2.

1997: Anti-Marriage Bill Adopted.

Senate Bill 2053: On January 10, without debate or hearings,

Senate passes bill declaring that gay people may not marry

and that lawful marriages of gay people performed in other

states may not be recognized in Mississippi. Passed by House,

signed into law by Governor Kirk Fordice (R) while, as the AP

describes it, "he is recovering from injuries suffered in a car

accident while returning from lunch with an unidentified

woman."

1996: Anti-Marriage Bill Blocked! Executive Order Issued.

Senate Bill 2863: Bill proposed, but failed to meet legislative

deadline. No further information.

Executive Order: Despite decision of legislature not to enact

discriminatory legislation, Governor Kirk Fordice issues an

executive order in August, purporting to declare by fiat that

gay people may not get married in Mississippi, and that the

state will not recognize any lawful marriages of same-sex

couples.

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Montana

Domestic Partnership There are no municipalities offering

domestic partner benefits in Montana.

Marriage Law 1997: Anti-Marriage Bill Adopted.

House Bill 323: Would prohibit same-sex couples from legally

marrying. Hearings held in Judiciary Committee Feb. 13,

passed House. Amended in Senate to declare in addition that

"a contractual relationship entered into for the purpose of

achieving a [prohibited] civil relationship ... is void as against

public policy." Amended version passed the House. Signed by

Governor Racicot on April 30.

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North Carolina

Domestic Partnership Municipalities offering domestic

partnership benefits to employees:

Carrboro (Orange): 1994.

Registry: October 11, 1994

Chapel Hill (Orange): April 24, 1995. The City Council measure

granted Town employees family and sick leave for domestic

partners and their children. Health benefits were added in May

1995.

Registry: April 24, 1995

Marriage Law 1996: Anti-Marriage Bill Adopted.

Senate Bill 1302: Introduced by Sen. James Forrester (R) on

May 23, 1996. Declares that "[m]arriages contracted or

performed outside of North Carolina between persons of the

same gender are not valid in Iredell County." Amended to add

eleven other counties. (The bill was a backdoor attempt to

circumvent legislative rules, hence the characterization as a

local bill with application to one county.) Passed without

hearings in House and Senate, becomes law automatically.

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North Dakota

Domestic Partnership There are no municipalities offering

domestic partner benefits in North Dakota.

Marriage Law 1997: Anti-Marriage Bill Adopted.

Senate Bill 2230: Restricts marriage to different-sex couples

only, and provides for recognition of out- of-state marriages,

except those of same-sex couples. Passed Senate. At hearing

in House Judiciary Committee on March 11, the Committee

voted against the bill, giving it a "Do Not Pass"

recommendation. Nevertheless, it passed the House, and was

signed into law on March 25 by Gov. Ed Schafer.

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Nebraska

Domestic Partnership There are no municipalities offering

domestic partner benefits in Nebraska.

Marriage Law 2000:

LB513: Anti-marriage bill carried over from last year.

1999: Anti-Marriage Bill Blocked!

Legislative Bill 513: Co-sponsored by 23 legislators, an

anti-marriage bill was once again introduced in this unicameral

legislature, and failed to advance.

1998: Anti-Marriage Bill Blocked!

Legislative Bill 280: Anti-marriage bill sponsored by Sen.

Jensen (R), held over from last year. Failed to advance prior

to legislative adjournment.

1997: Anti-Marriage Bill Blocked!

Legislative Bill 280: "The Nebraska Defense of Marriage Act"

was introduced by Sen. Jim Jensen on January 13. Restricts

marriage to different-sex couples only, denying recognition to

lawful marriages. Judiciary Committee held hearing 2/19.

Successful filibuster by Senator Ernie Chambers blocked

passage.

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New Hampshire

Domestic Partnership There are no municipalities offering

domestic partner benefits in New Hampshire.

Marriage Law 2000:

HB1293: Rep. Gary Torressen (R) introduced another

anti-marriage bill declaring invalid the lawful marriages of

same-sex couples. The bill will be heard in the Children and

Family Law Committee on Jan. 13.

1997: Anti-Marriage Bill Blocked!

House Bill 260: Introduced by Re. Paul Mirski (R). Restricts

marriage to only different-sex couples. Following hearing in

Judiciary Committee, rejected by full House by vote of 261 to

85.

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New Jersey

Domestic Partnership State of New Jersey.

In Litigation AAUP v. Rutgers: Lambda is participating in a

case with NOW Legal Defense Fund and the ACLU of New

Jersey against Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey,

which denies dependent coverage to unmarried employees

whose partners need insurance.

Municipalities offering domestic partnership benefits to

employees:

Gloucester County: Non-health Benefits.

Marriage Law 2000:

A803: Anti-marriage bill carried over from last year.

S57: Anti-marriage bill carried over from last year.

1999: Anti-Marriage Bill Proposed.

Assembly Bill 706: Carried over from last year, having failed to

advance.

Senate Bill 1281: Same.

1998: Anti-Marriage Bill Blocked!

Assembly Bill 706: Anti-marriage bill held over in Assembly

from last year. Failed to advance.

1997: Anti-Marriage Bill Blocked!

Assembly Bill 2193: Introduced by Assemblywoman Marion

Crecco (R), the sponsor of the previous year's bill. Would

amend NJ law to state that "[p]ersons of the same sex shall

not marry," that any such marriage would be "absolutely void"

in New Jersey, and that "[m]arriage between persons of the

same sex is against the [state's] public policy." Passed Health

Committee. Failed to advance.

1996: Anti-Marriage Bill Blocked!

Assembly Bill 2193: Introduced by Assemblywoman Marion

Crecco (R). Would amend NJ law to state that "[p]ersons of

the same sex shall not marry," that any such marriage would

be "absolutely void" in New Jersey, and that "[m]arriage

between persons of the same sex is against the [state's]

public policy.

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New Mexico

Domestic Partnership There are no municipalities offering

domestic partner benefits in New Mexico.

Marriage Law 2000:- BLOCKED!

Senate Bill 189: Sponsored by Sen. Leonard Rawson, this

latest version of an anti-marriage bill in New Mexico (the fifth

year one has been pushed) blatantly targets gay people,

explicitly assuring respect to all lawful out-of-state marriages

except for those of same-sex couples, and would bar gay

people from marrying. Bill was rejected and legislature

adjourned on Feb. 17 (although there will be a limited special

session in May).

Senate Joint Res. 18: Similar.

1999: Anti-Marriage Bill Blocked!

House Bill 201: Sponsored by Earlene Roberts, once again an

anti-marriage measure is introduced in the state legislature.

The Mormon Church sent $30,000 to the state to be used in

pressuring the legislature into adopting it. Tabled by a 6-1

vote in the Consumer and Public Affairs Committee February

17.

Senate Bill 186: Same, sponsored by Senator Rawson.

1998: Anti-Marriage Bill Blocked!

Senate Joint Resolution 4: For the third consecutive year,

anti-marriage bill introduced, sponsored by Sen. Adair (R).

Would have put before voters a proposed constitutional

amendment to mandate sex discrimination in marriage. Failed

to advance prior to close of session.

1997: Anti-Marriage Bill Blocked!

House Bill 640: Limits marriage to different-sex couples.

Recognizes as valid all out-of-state marriages except those of

same-sex couples. Punishes anyone celebrating a same-sex

couple's marriage. Approved by Consumer and Public Affairs

Committee. Failed to proceed prior to adjournment.

Senate Joint Resolution 8: Proposes to amend state

constitution to declare that only different-sex couples'

marriages shall be permited or recognized. Failed to proceed

prior to adjournment.

1996: Anti-Marriage Bill Blocked!

Senate Joint Resolution 10: A proposed constitutional

amendment to prevent legal recognition of same-sex couples'

lawful marriages, failed to be brought to the floor and thus

died in the Senate on February 15.

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Nevada

Domestic Partnership There are no municipalities offering

domestic partner benefits in Nevada.

Marriage Law 2000:

Although the legislature does not convene this year, a

right-wing group has announced its intention to seek

signatures for a November ballot measure, the so-called

"Protection of Marriage Initiative," aimed at writing anti-gay,

anti-marriage discriminatory language into the state

constitution. The proponents of discrimination have until June

20 to collect 44,009 signatures representing at least 10

percent of registered voters in 13 of 17 counties.

There has been no marriage legislation introduced in Nevada.

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New York

Domestic Partnership New York offers Domestic Partnership

Benefits to Employees (1995)

The Civil Service Employees Association, representing most

(but not all) New York State public employees, reached an

agreement to include domestic partnership benefits in its new

contract.

Funderburke v. Uniondale Free School: In Litigation. In New

York, the state government provides its employees' domestic

partners with health insurance coverage, but local

government agencies that use the state's health insurance

plan to provide their employees with benefits are given the

option of not including domestic partners in their coverage.

Lambda is supporting a challenge on marital status

discrimination grounds to a local government that excludes

partners.

Municipalities offering domestic partnership benefits to

employees:

Albany (Albany): 1994.

Registry

Brooklyn Public Library

Ithaca (Tompkins): January 1991

Registry: August 1990

New York City (New York, Kings, Queens, Bronx & Richmond):

October 1993

Registry: January 1993

[New York State Attorney's Office]: Withdrawn by Attorney

General Dennis Vacco.

Rochester (Monroe): April 1994

Registry: April 1994

Marriage Law 2000:

S.5228: Anti-marriage bill again sponsored by Senator Maltese

(R), carried over from last year.

A.594: Anti-marriage bill again sponsored by Rep. Seminerio

(R), carried over from last year.

1999: Anti-Marriage Bill Proposed.

Assembly Bill 594: Assembly Member Seminerio again

introduces anti-marriage bill, which would void same-sex

couples's lawful marriages if they return, come to, or travel

through New York. Referred to Judiciary Committee.

Senate Bill 5528: Same, sponsored by Senator Padavan.

1998: Anti-Marriage Bill Blocked!

Assembly Bill 158: Anti-marriage bill introduced again, for third

consecutive year. Failed to advance.

Senate Bill 1649: Same.

1997: Anti-Marriage Bill Blocked!

Assembly Bill 158: Introduced by Assemblymember Seminerio.

Companion bill introduced by Senator Maltese. Would make

lawful marriages of same-sex couples "absolutely void" in New

York State. Failed to advance.

1996: Anti-Marriage Bill Blocked!

Senate Bill 7345: Introduced by Senator Maltese (R). Would

amend domestic relations law to declare that "a marriage is

absolutely void if contracted by two persons of the same sex,

regardless of whether such marriage is recognized or

solemnized in another jurisdiction. Referred to Judiciary

Committee. Legislature adjourned without action.

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Ohio

Domestic Partnership There are no municipalities offering

domestic partner benefits in Ohio.

Marriage Law 2000:

SB240: Sen. Jay Hottinger (R) has announced his intention to

again introduce an anti-marriage bill in Ohio.

HB547: Rep. Jim Jordan (R) has announced his intention to

again introduce an anti-marriage bill in Ohio.

1998: Anti-Marriage Bill Blocked!

House Bill 160: Anti-marriage bill held over from last year.

Failed to advance.

1997: Anti-Marriage Bill Blocked!

House Bill 160: Introduced by Representative Jay Hottinger

(R), the vice chair of the Insurance Committee, on January

29, 1997. States that only a man age 18 or over and a

woman age 16 or over may marry, and would specifically

prevent valid marriages from other states from being

recognized in Ohio. Assigned to Civil and Commerical Law

Committee. Failed to advance.

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Oklahoma

Domestic Partnership There are no municipalities offering

domestic partner benefits in Oklahoma.

Marriage Law 1996: Anti-Marriage Bill Adopted.

House Bill 2554: Introduced by Rep. Tim Pope (R). Says "A

marriage between persons of the same gender performed in

another state shall not be recognized as valid and binding in

this state as of the date of the marriage." Failed in

committee.

Senate Bill 73: Rep. Pope's language above incorporated as

amendment to bill sponsored by Senator Hendrick. Passed by

House and Senate without hearings. Signed by Governor.

House Res. 1045: Non-binding resolution introduced by Rep.

Hamilton. As part of an attack on the National Education

Association, declares that "persons who engage in same-sex

marriages should not be permitted to adopt or provide foster

care to children in this state."

Return to top

Oregon

Domestic Partnership Oregon offers Domestic Partnership

Benefits to Employees.

Lambda helped defend benefits from unsuccessful challenge in

Tanner v. Oregon Health Sciences University.

Municipalities offering domestic partnership benefits to

employees:

Ashland (Jackson)

Registry Only: October 5, 1999

Corvallis (Benton): 1997.

Eugene (Lane)

Eugene Water and Electrical Board (EWEB)

Multnomah County: 1993.

Portland (Multnomah): June 1994

Marriage Law 1999: Anti-Marriage Amendment Blocked!

HJR 29: Reps. Mannix and Witt introduce an anti-marriage

constitutional amendment proposal. It would authorize

discrimination against gay people's freedom to marry, as well

as attempt to overturn last year's court decision interpreting

the state constitution to forbid sexual orientation

discrimination in the provision of health benefits and other

protections. A version passed the House, now labeled HJR 4,

but was rejected by the Senate.

1997: Anti-Marriage Bill Blocked!

Senate Bill 577: Introduced by Senator Marylin Shannon (R).

Would restrict marriage to only different-sex couples. Passed

Senate 5/22/97. Amendments defeated in House Judiciary

family law subcommittee, which referred bill on to full Judiciary

Committee and, if passed there, to House Rules Committee.

Failed to advance.

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Pennsylvania

Domestic Partnership Municipalities offering domestic

partnership benefits to employees:

Lower Merton School District: June 7, 1996.

Philadelphia (Philadelphia): June 7, 1996. City employees also

enjoy housing tax break prviously only given to married

couples. Same-sex couples only. Registry

Marriage Law 1996: Anti-Marriage Bill Adopted.

House Bill 2604: Introduced by Rep. Alan Egolf (R) on May 7.

Would declare "same-sex marriage" to be "repugnant to our

public policy," and states that "No same-sex marriage shall be

recognized as entitled to the benefits of marriage." Further

says that "any marriage entered into by persons of the same

sex, where such license is issued by another state... shall be

void... and any contractual rights granted by virtue of such

license, including its termination, shall be unenforceable in the

courts [of Pennsylvania]." Passed by House.

Senate Bill 155: Senate concurs on Oct. 1. Signed by

Governor Tom Ridge (R).

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Rhode Island

Domestic Partnership There are no municipalities offering

domestic partner benefits in Rhode Island.

Marriage Law 2000:

H. 7589: Rep. Mike Pisaturo (D) introduces a bill to end sex

discrimination in civil marriage. Committee hearing held.

S. 2380: Similar

H. 7552: Anti-marriage bill introduced as well.

1999: Pro-Marriage Bill Proposed!

House Bill 5517: On Feb. 2, Rep. Mike Pisaturo (D) introduced

a bill to end sex discrimination in civil marriage. Referred to

Judiciary Committee.

1998: Pro-Marriage Bill Proposed!

House Bill 7994: Pro-marriage bill introduced by Rep. Pisaturo

(D) to end discrimination against same-sex couples seeking

the equal freedom to marry.

1997: Anti-Marriage Bill Blocked!

House Bill: Anti-marriage bill introduced. Rejected 11 to 5 by

House Judiciary Committee on April 11, and failed to proceed.

1996: Anti-Marriage Bill Blocked!

House Bill 7587: Introduced by Reps. Flaherty and Knowles on

January 23, 1996. Amendment to Chapter 15-3 of the General

Laws entitled "Solemnization of Marriages" states that Rhode

Island will only recognize as valid a marriage that "comports

with and meets all conditions and requirements pursuant to

this chapter." Tabled by Rhode Island House Judiciary

Committee at a public hearing at the State House in

Providence on February 1, 1996.

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South Carolina

Domestic Partnership There are no municipalities offering

domestic partner benefits in South Carolina.

Marriage Law 1996: Anti-Marriage Bill Adopted.

House Bill 4502: Introduced by Rep. Simrill (R) on January 25,

1996. Provides that same-sex couples' marriages performed in

other states are not valid or recognized in South Carolina.

Passed House.

Senate Bill 1151: Passed by Senate. Signed by Governor

Beaseley (R) May 20, 1996.

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South Dakota

Domestic Partnership There are no municipalities offering

domestic partner benefits in South Dakota.

Marriage Law 2000:

HB 1163 Not content with having passed an anti-marriage

measure in 1996, the legislature passed an additional

anti-gay, anti-marriage bill declaring that the state will

respect any marriage contracted out of state except for

those of same-sex couples. The bill was sponsored by House

Speaker Roger Hunt (R).

1996: Anti-Marriage Bill Adopted.

House Bill 1143: Defines marriage as being "between a man

and a woman." The House voted on January 29, 1996 to pass

bill. Passed in the Senate under pressure from right-wing

extremist groups such as the Family Research Council. Signed

into law by Governor February 21. Unless repealed, will be

subject of litigation by couples forced to protect their lawful

marriages and families, as well as employers, creditors, and

civil rights groups.

1995: Anti-Marriage Bill Proposed and Defeated

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Tennessee

Domestic Partnership There are no municipalities offering

domestic partner benefits in Tennessee.

Marriage Law 1996: Anti-Marriage Bill Adopted.

Senate Bill 2305: Introduced by Sen. Holcomb. Amends

Tennessee Code Annotated, Title 36, Chapter 3, Part 5 by

adding that it is the state's public policy "to recognize the

union of only a man and a woman," and that marriages

between persons of the same sex "are prohibited in this

state." Additionally, an amendment has been proposed to spell

out legislative policy "to recognize the family, which begins

with the marriage of one (1) man and one (1) woman...."

Passed by Senate.

House Bill 2907: Identical companion bill. Passed by House.

Signed by Governor.

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Texas

Domestic Partnership Municipalities offering domestic

partnership benefits to employees:

[Austin (Travis)]: September 1993. REPEALED, May 7, 1994

by referendum. In Litigation A suit has been filed on behalf of

three couples who had registered, Bailey v. City of Austin, No.

9407318 (Travis Co. Dist. Ct.). Registry

Travis County: 1993. Non-health Benefits Registry

Marriage Law 1999: Anti-Marriage Bill Blocked!

HB 383: Rep. Chisum introduces yet another anti-marriage bill.

Referred to State Affairs Committee. Failed to advance

Senate Joint Resolution 1: Proposed amendment to state

constitution contains language on the Family Code/community

property that might restrict marriage to different-sex couples.

1997: Anti-Marriage Bill Blocked!

House Bill 11: Rep. Warren Chisum (R) filed "emergency" bill

barring recognition under all circumstances for lawful marriage

of same-sex couples. After lengthy procedural back and forth,

failed to proceed.

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Utah

Domestic Partnership There are no municipalities offering

domestic partner benefits in Utah.

Marriage Law 1995: Anti-Marriage Bill Adopted.

In 1995 three states (AK, SD, UT) were pressured to adopt

anti-marriage laws; two refused. Only one state, Utah,

actually adopted one of these unconstitutional anti-marriage

laws, thereby guaranteeing that its taxpayers will face costly

and likely losing litigation brought by couples (and others)

seeking to defend lawful marriages (once marriage

discrimination is ended through a case such as that pending in

Hawaii).

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Virginia

Domestic Partnership Municipalities offering domestic

partnership benefits to employees:

Arlington County: July 1, 1997

Marriage Law 1997: Anti-Marriage Bill Adopted.

House Bill 1589: Introduced in House of Delegates by Johnson.

Adds to prohibition on marriages by same-sex couples

language declaring such lawful marriages to be void, and all

contractual rights created by such lawful marriages to be void

and unenforceable. Passed by House.

Senate Bill 884: Similar bill passed by Senate. Signed into law

by Gov. Allen (R).

1996: Anti-Marriage Bill Blocked!

House Bill 1189: Introduced in House of Delegates by James

McClure. Subsequently stricken from docket with the consent

of the sponsor. Unlikely to advance.

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Vermont

Domestic Partnership Vermont offers domestic partnership

benefits to employees.

1991

Municipalities offering domestic partnership benefits to

employees:

Burlington (Chittenden): January 1993

Middlebury (Addison): September 1995

Marriage Law 2000:

On December 20, 1999, the Vermont Supreme Court ruled in

Baker v. State that same-sex couples can no longer be

denied full and equal protections, benefits, and responsibilities

under the law. The Court gave the legislature first crack at

deciding how to provide equality, while retaining jurisdiction

over the case to assess what the legislature does in the

session beginning Jan. 2000. The Court left open the question

whether a “separate but equal” approach would satisfy the

constitution’s command of equality, or whether only ending

discrimination in marriage itself would suffice.

H 479: Anti-marriage measure carried over from last year.

1999: Anti-Marriage Bill Blocked!

H 479: Anti-marriage bill sponsored by Rep. Schiavone to

prohibit people from marrying a person they love of the same

sex, and to "deny effect to any public act, record or judicial

proceeding of any other state or jurisdiction regarding [their]

lawful marriage." Failed to advance.

1998: Anti-Marriage Bill Blocked!

House Bill 182: Anti-marriage bill introduced to prohibit

same-sex couples from marrying, but failed to advance prior

to adjournment.

1997: Anti-Marriage Bill Blocked!

House Bill 182: Introduced by Rep. Nancy Sheltra (R). Would

prohibit same-sex couples from marrying, and deny any such

couples' lawful marriages recognition under all circumstances.

Referred to Judiciary Committee. Failed to proceed by

adjournment June 30.

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Washington

Domestic Partnership Municipalities offering domestic

partnership benefits to employees:

Edmonds School District

King County: January 1993

Municipality of Metropolitan Seattle (Metro)

Olympia (Thurston): November 1994

Seattle (King): March 1990

Registry: September 6, 1994. Open to Anyone.

Seattle City Light Company

Seattle Public Library

Tumwater (Thurston): May 1997

Marriage Law 1998: Anti-Marriage Bill Adopted.

Senate Bill 5400, House Bill 1130: For third consecutive year,

anti-marriage bills introduced. With minimal debate or process,

the bills passed both houses in one day, Feb. 6, and then

went to Governor Gary Locke, who again vetoed the measure.

Within hours, both houses, without debate, overrode the veto

-- an unprecedented course of events. The anti-marriage law

takes effect in ninety days, without going to the voters for a

referendum (the alternative some legislators frantically sought

to avoid). The law restricts marriage to different-sex couples,

and discriminates against lawful marriages celebrated

elsewhere.

1997: Anti-Marriage Bill Blocked!

Senate Bill 5398: Would deny marriage to same-sex couples,

and would invalidate their lawful marriages from other states.

Passed by House and Senate. On Feb. 21, Governor Gary

Locke (D) vetoed the bill as a "measure that would divide,

disrespect, or diminish our humanity." On Feb. 26, by a vote

of 26 to 20, the Senate failed to override the governor's veto.

Legislators in the House attempted to rush same measure

onto a special June ballot; failing that, the House voted

narrowly (50-48) to send the measure to voters in

September. Measure died in conference committee after

Senate refused to authorize a referendum, thereby sustaining

the Governor's veto.

1996: Anti-Marriage Bill Blocked!

House Bill 2262: Introduced on January 8, 1996 by Rep.

Thompson (R). Provided that same-sex couples' marriages

performed in other states are not valid or recognized in

Washington. Passed the House 60-36. The Senate declined to

act on the bill prior to adjournment on March 8, thus killing it.

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Wisconsin

Domestic Partnership Municipalities offering domestic

partnership benefits to employees:

Dane County: Non-health Benefits

Dane County Regional Planning Commission: Non-health

Benefits

Madison (Dane): October 1999

Registry: August 1988

Madison Metropolitan School District:August 1988.

Milwaukee (Milwaukee): 9/1/99

Shorewood Hills (Dane): 1991. Applies only to city pool

memberships.

Marriage Law 2000:

Assembly Bill 781: Once again, an anti-marriage bill is

introduced to deny respect to the lawful marriages of

same-sex couples out of state. Referred to Ctee on Family

Law.

Senate Bill 401: Similar. Referred to Judiciary and Consumer

Affairs Ctee.

1998: Anti-Marriage Bill Blocked!

Assembly Bill 104: Anti-marriage bill carried over from last

year. Passed the Assembly in 1997, sent to Senate. Bill failed

to advance in regular or special session.

1997: Anti-Marriage Bill Blocked!

Assembly Bill 104: Anti-marriage bill again introduced. Hearing

held in Committee on Children and Families. Passed the

Assembly on May 13. Failed to advance.

1996: Anti-Marriage Bill Blocked!

House Bill: Introduced by Rep. Loraine Seratti. Died in

committee.

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West Virginia

Domestic Partnership There are no municipalities offering

domestic partner benefits in West Virginia.

Marriage Law 2000:

SB 40: Sen. Boley introduced an anti-marriage bill to limit

marriage to different-sex couples. Passed the Senate. HB

2036: Yet another anti-marriage measure is introduced, this

one by Delegates Coleman, Faircloth, and Harrison. The bill

declares, in part that “a public act, record or judicial

proceeding... respecting a relationship between persons of

the same sex that is treated as a marriage under the laws of

any other state... or a right or claim arising from the

relationship shall not be given effect by this state.” A

last-minute parliamentary move leads to passage of the bill,

which goes to Gov. Underwood for signature.

1999: Anti-Marriage Bill Blocked!

HB 2036: Another bill to again try to ban same-sex couples

from marrying. Referred to Judiciary Committee. Failed to

advance, even as part of omnibus measure.

Senate Bill 17: Another discriminatory measure aimed at

selectively excluding same-sex couples' out-of-state lawful

marriages from those treated equally by the state. Failed to

advance.

1998: Anti-Marriage Bill Blocked!

Senate Bill 50: Once again, an anti-marriage bill is introduced

to restrict civil marriage to different-sex couples. Sponsored

by Sen. Donna Boley (R), the bill goes to the Judiciary

Committee.

Senate Bill 247: Without hearings or debate, the House

Judiciary Committee chair substituted a bill for this senate

measure, incorporating anti-marriage provisions. Died in

Conference Committee, prior to adjournment. Although there

will be a special session, the anti-marriage measures are not

on the agenda.

1997: Anti-Marriage Bill Blocked!

House Bill 2179: Would deny same-sex couples' lawful

marriages recognition in the state. Bill was amended in Senate

Judiciary, passed the Senate, but then failed to advance out

of conference committee.

1996: Anti-Marriage Bill Blocked!

House Bill 4730: Introduced by Rep. Steve Harrison on last

day of session. Provides that out-of-state marriages will be

recognized as valid except for certain marriages, including

those "between persons of the same sex." Bill failed to

advance.

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Wyoming

Domestic Partnership There are no municipalities offering

domestic partner benefits in Wyoming.

Marriage Law 1997: Anti-Marriage Bill Blocked!

House Bill 94: Proposal to withhold recognition for lawful

marriages from other states, and to void any in Wyoming,

introduced by Rep. Garcia. Bill failed to advance past the

Labor, Health, and Social Service Committee and is now dead.

1996: Anti-Marriage Bill Blocked!

House Bill 142: Proposal to declare the "invalidity of same-sex

marriages" failed to receive enough votes for introduction.